Saturday, January 24, 2009
since the best part what they are doing for both is in writing, PR writer do not write like a journalist or sell like an advertising agency they are to advise, be part in the management, be spokeperson for the employee for the employer, give the ideas with their cognitive thinking and be expert in doing research..
what they wrote must be accountable..reliable..trustworthy...or they had lost all the trust from the public...
..they should write with facts and should not be tailormade to suit his employer needs...
and to be good at all this...the writer need to be...
good at their tools...
their English Language, grammar, knowledgeable, using current style, using the current communication media...e-mail...desktop publishings..and others...
Monday, January 19, 2009
While a person with depression or bipolar disorder typically endures the same mood for weeks, a person with BPD may experience intense bouts of anger, depression, and anxiety that may last only hours, or at most a day.5 These may be associated with episodes of impulsive aggression, self-injury, and drug or alcohol abuse. Distortions in cognition and sense of self can lead to frequent changes in long-term goals, career plans, jobs, friendships, gender identity, and values. Sometimes people with BPD view themselves as fundamentally bad, or unworthy. They may feel unfairly misunderstood or mistreated, bored, empty, and have little idea who they are. Such symptoms are most acute when people with BPD feel isolated and lacking in social support, and may result in frantic efforts to avoid being alone.
Treatments for BPD have improved in recent years. Group and individual psychotherapy are at least partially effective for many patients. Within the past 15 years, a new psychosocial treatment termed dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) was developed specifically to treat BPD, and this technique has looked promising in treatment studies.6 Pharmacological treatments are often prescribed based on specific target symptoms shown by the individual patient. Antidepressant drugs and mood stabilizers may be helpful for depressed and/or labile mood. Antipsychotic drugs may also be used when there are distortions in thinking.7
Although the cause of BPD is unknown, both environmental and genetic factors are thought to play a role in predisposing patients to BPD symptoms and traits. Studies show that many, but not all individuals with BPD report a history of abuse, neglect, or separation as young children.8 Forty to 71 percent of BPD patients report having been sexually abused, usually by a non-caregiver.9 Researchers believe that BPD results from a combination of individual vulnerability to environmental stress, neglect or abuse as young children, and a series of events that trigger the onset of the disorder as young adults.
Studies that translate basic findings about the neural basis of temperament, mood regulation, and cognition into clinically relevant insights which bear directly on BPD represent a growing area of NIMH-supported research. Research is also underway to test the efficacy of combining medications with behavioral treatments like DBT, and gauging the effect of childhood abuse and other stress in BPD on brain hormones. Data from the first prospective, longitudinal study of BPD, which began in the early 1990s, is expected to reveal how treatment affects the course of the illness. It will also pinpoint specific environmental factors and personality traits that predict a more favorable outcome. The Institute is also collaborating with a private foundation to help attract new researchers to develop a better understanding and better treatment for BPD.
Saturday, January 17, 2009
Understanding Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)
by Dante de Miura
Why do smart companies go to great lengths to ensure consistency in their brand marketing messages across all marketing channels? There are many levels of answers to this, but ultimately it comes down to two things: Winning the battle of perceptions and generating sales.
In today's heavily cluttered marketplace with heavily fragmented media and heavily time-taxed consumers, companies are struggling to get the kind of exposure for their products they used to get 30 years ago. In order to get noticed, and in an attempt to cut through the noise generated by so much advertising and promoting of product, companies are smartly creating highly-focused communications that more accurately reflect the desired brand's image and using the same style of executions in all mediums and at all touchpoints with target consumers. The result? Higher brand recall by consumers, more effective awareness, more impact from marketing dollars spent and a higher probability of of triggering desired outcomes, namely, favorable perceptions and purchases.
Thirty years ago, all Proctor & Gamble had to do to reach well over 70% of the homemaker market segment was run a few TV commercials on a few different daytime TV shows (usually soap operas). Today, with the proliferation of now hundreds of TV stations and programming options, and with fewer stay-at-home spouses, P&G would reach a mere fraction of that with the same method. Add to that the the many other mediums and modes of communication we have today and you can see why company executives scratch their heads about how to best reach their target audience. The number of people with computers, Internet access (to millions of "channels"), cell phones, portable media receivers, etc, between 25-to 45-year-olds is staggering compared to just five years ago-and it is still growing.
Today, companies must use a wide and varied mix of media to reach a large portion of their audience, save for the middle and elderly part of the Senior market, but even that is changing. And in order to create a lasting impression and to trigger certain perceptions in the future at a moment's glance they need to ensure consistency in look, feel, style, tone, color and message at every touchpoint with consumers. And, equally importantly, they need to do it with a highly-impactful visual layout and few words. And it is not as easy as it may seem.
Creating integrated marketing communications, then, means expressing the core brand message in the same or very similar fashion at every touchpoint with the target consumer (or business-to-business customer).
As humans, we can really only comprehend just a few ideas at any one time so very focused messaging is usually more effective, anyway. Still, companies struggle with this because they have so much they want to say. But what they are learning (finally, after all these years) is that they can say way more visually about their brand, in the few seconds they have our attention, then we would have time (or care to take the time) to read about their brand. Enter now the world of perceptual management and see what companies are really getting a handle on and why integrated marketing communications will become the standard practice for all brands.
"Perceptions" are what drives purchasing behavior. Perceptions are formed in our minds through judgments-sometimes immediately and sometimes after careful consideration. The strongest perceptions, or those that we feel most passionate about, are those formed through emotional judgments, or the ideas, notions or concepts that we feel attach strongly to our own values, wants or likes. This understanding by corporations of perceptions and how to pro-actively manage them has led to a boom in the brand-building industry and better, more focused branding efforts that, in the end, help consumers more easily determine what brands we want to align with.
So, you might wonder, if brand managers are looking to make quicker, more lasting, more effective communications today by delivering consistent and "integrated" communications through a plethora of media, threading highly-selected visuals and written words into every mode, medium and message, then aren't they taking a huge risk? If everything looks and sounds the same, aren't they hanging their hat on only one hook? What if it doesn't work?
The answer represents a shift in accountability. In the "old" days, if a product "campaign" didn't work, the creative team was blamed and the ad agency was fired or a new team was installed. Today, with the focus on brand-building, integrated messaging and managing perceptions, the blame lies squarely with the developers of the brand strategy. That's because the "science" (as it were) of managing perceptions has created a visual and verbal translation mechanism that provides more highly reliable input for creative executions AND a way to validate those executions prior to going to market with them.
When creative executions are left to the creative development team to "translate" traditional written research and strategy documents and creative briefs, these professionals communicators do their best to intuitively develop visual and verbal executions they think hit the mark.
This led to consumers either deriving the "correct" meaning and feeling of the ads, commercials or brochures or getting an incorrect, or unintended meaning, feeling or perception. This left many companies to spend millions of dollars in HOPES of triggering favorable perceptions and garnering correct positioning in the minds of their audience and in the marketplace in general. The notion of being more proactive in managing these perceptions at the outset rather than to "guess" is what led to the perceptual management practice.
Now, companies can actually have a better handle on how their customers will view a brand by highly-focusing what they want a that brand to represent. Brand strategies today should not conclude with, say, a 200-page written document, but rather three or four desired perceptions that are formed directly from the research and strategy work. These core perceptions should represent the desired effect of how consumers should think about this brand and must meet three main criteria to be considered "on target." The perceptions must:
1. Be meaningful to the customers 2. Show differentiation from the competition 3. Be true to the actual nature and values of the brand
Once these are determined, they must be visually translated - in a very raw sense - and by customers, not creatives. To do this, a brand manager can take each desired brand perception and create for it what's called an "opposite" perception, or one diametrically opposed and not desired. For each brand perception and its opposite, a series of visual images will be gathered to test with consumers. Each series of images (say, eight to ten) will be within the same subject matter, like people or scenery or perhaps even more in context, like various other company Websites (with brand/company names removed).
Consumers are then asked, in small groups of four to six, to rank these images linearly according to the desired perception and its opposite. The result is a spectrum (or spectrums) for each perception, illustrating how target consumers see visual information as it relates to the perceptions. More accurately put, they are basically telling the manager what types of imagery is triggering the desired perception. This can be done with logos, key words and brand names, as well.
Results from this type of qualitative activity provides much better input to the creative team and helps them better perform their jobs. In fact, upon analysis of these results, what they are getting are visual and verbal cues that trigger desired brand perceptions. Rather than having to sift through hundreds of pages of documents, or try to intuitively decipher a written creative brief, creatives (especially graphic designers) are handed a palette of visual information to use in their work. Doesn't make more sense to hand creative people more precise visual and verbal data to embed in their executions versus stacks of documents? Of course, and typically they have a more immediate understanding of not only where the brand needs to go executionally but also which cues to avoid. This saves time and money and the frustration of re-work.
Once the creative team pulls together initial concepts for ads and such, these concepts can again be tested with consumers to find the one most effective at triggering desired perceptions, or what refinements need to be made. It is after this that all the necessary and final executions for all varieties media to be employed are executed. With each execution embedding the "winning" cues, and with all the pieces having similar look, feel, style, tone, etc., that the brand manager is better assured of triggering desired perceptions for brand and creating better brand recall and awareness.
In all, the proliferation of means to promote and advertise products in this day and age, and the dramatic bombardment of messages consumers receive daily, have led to increased costs for marketers that want to gain significant exposure for their brands. The attempts to cut through the clutter, gain recognition and awareness and use marketing dollars more effectively led to an international drive towards communications integration. This, in turn, led to more focused brand-building, the proactive management of desired marketplace perceptions and an easier way for consumers to more quickly evaluate a brand against their wants and desires.
(yes I know so many words). But it is very informative to have the feel and thought about what marketing is about.
Thursday, January 15, 2009
the topic given..and we have to write at least 2 pages and email it to our lecturer...i tremble to think that we have a balance of 7 days to do it and there is no reference whatsoever to start with..
slowly..I read the topic again and gain some confidence...he has reviewed this chapter quite clearly that day..and yes..it is a repetition (sort of)..that this assigment is a revision of our last semester...yeah..I have the book..
wow ..i felt so much better...
and the topic is clearly and very transparent on what we are referring to the subject itself..
yes guys come on...
I have dropped CTU 553 and replaced to Marketing in Communications - Com 463. Since yesterday, I did not managed to get into Iclass so I decided to call Puan. I managed to speak to Puan and informed my problems and proceeded to give a call to the SMB (after advised by Puan). After the staff-in-charged informed me that I will be able to view the Marketing on line I am relieved.
Yes, at last I managed to go into Iclass and went through the contents. It looks like, I have to really pull my socks this Semester. 4 Subject and all of them is tough. Very tough, a lot of reading and assignments.
My oh My....oh gosh be ghost..Let's gone...
Tuesday, January 13, 2009
The scientific study of behaviors and mental processes.
Field of Psychology is considered as science because the scientific methods are used to acquire the body of knowledge
Goal of Psychology -
The goals of psychology are to describe, explain, predict and control the behavior and mental processes
1.To describe: The first step in understanding any behavior and mental process. Researchers describe the phenomenon of behaviors and mental processes as accurately and completely as possible.
2.To explain: Researchers explain the causes of the behaviors and mental processes after the findings have been tested, retested and confirmed.
3.To predict: Researchers have the knowledge to specify the condition under which a behavior is likely to occur (antecedent condition and consequent behaviors or symptom).
4.To control: Researchers apply the findings of researches. This goal is accomplish when researchers change the antecedent conditions to prevent unwanted consequences.
PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY
1.Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) -Father of Psychology
2.Structuralism- Englishmen Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927)
3.Functionalism-William James (1842-1910)
4.Gestalt Psychology- Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffa and Wolfgang Kohler
5.Behaviorism-J.B. Watson (1878-1958)
6.Psychoanalysis-Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
7.Existential and Humanistic Psychology-Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)
(Please read up to understand more 1 - 8)
Sunday, January 11, 2009
Scientific behaviour or mental process of human
Psychology is now defined as the scientific study of behaviours and mental processess.
(many people perceive psychology as a field that only studies abnormal behaviours and mental disorders. Actually psychologists do not only study strange and unusual behaviour but they are also interested in the normal behaviours and mental processess as well).
Quizzes - 4 seminar - 4 quizes - 20%
Assignment : Essay - 30%
Final Exam : - 40%
Internet participation - 10%
Grand Total - 100%
Since there is no posting at all on this topic so I will be updating this subject first compared to others.
After all the discussions these are the main points that we needed to remember, memorize, understand, chew it, blender it we must remember these 10 items whatsoever amnesia that is going to hit us.
1. Chairman's address
2. Apology of Absent
3. Minutes of last meeting
4. Matters of arising out of the last meeting
7. Special Business
8. Any other Business
9. Date/time/venue of the next meeting
Def. of Meetings - a group of people meet to discuss , number of people is more than 2,
Formal meetings - It is a planned ahead, all committees need to be informed (email, faxed, memos but not verbal). It is a legal documents and accepted in courts and it needed to be stated in hardcopy to be an evidence if need be.
Markings - for this paper
1 - Meetings 1 (mock meetings ) - seminar 3 - 20 %
2 - Meetings (presentation with a group of 7) - seminar 4 - 40%
3. Meetings - Minutes of meetings (exam) final seminar 5 - 30%
4. Participation on line - 10%
Grand total 100%
Some terms to be used in the writing of minutes (make sure it is being applied)
quorom - enough number of people to start a meeting (sometimes determine by their agreement)
propose - suggestions
proposal - suggested ideas
seconded - agreeing the proposed idea
adjourn - meeting ended
shelf the proposal (postponed the proposal to next meeting
cast vote - only will be needed if there is equal vote. Chairman will decide and that is called cast vote.
carried out - after the meeting has accepted the proposal the proposal will be carried out
unanimously accepted (sebulat suara) - one voice
abstain - do not vote at all (duduk atas pagar)
Friday, January 9, 2009
There are 2 senses for Public Relations Writing
2 Professional senses
- to be communicated
- target publics
Sender (PR practitioner) -----> Message (channel/media) -----> receiver (publics)
A fundamental technique used in public relations is to identify the target audience, and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience. It can be a general, nationwide or worldwide audience, but it is more often a segment of a population. Marketers often refer to economy-driven "demographics," such as "black males 18-49," but in public relations an audience is more fluid, being whoever someone wants to reach. For example, recent political audiences include "soccer moms" and "NASCAR dads." There is also a psychographic grouping based on fitness level, eating preferences, "adrenaline junkies,"etc...
In addition to audiences, there are usually stakeholders, literally people who have a "stake" in a given issue. All audiences are stakeholders (or presumptive stakeholders), but not all stakeholders are audiences. For example, a charity commissions a PR agency to create an advertising campaign to raise money to find a cure for a disease. The charity and the people with the disease are stakeholders, but the audience is anyone who is likely to donate money.
Sometimes the interests of differing audiences and stakeholders common to a PR effort necessitate the creation of several distinct but still complementary messages. This is not always easy to do, and sometimes – especially in politics – a spokesperson or client says something to one audience that angers another audience or group of stakeholders.
- specified media - specified audience (eg employees - newsletter)
- mass media - for mass audience (eg magazine, books)
PR Writers Role
1 - Well verse with all aspects of the organisation
2 - Well verse about the organisation's public
3 - Be able to determine the best channels to seperate the message
4 - Well verse in communication (tools)
Communicators - to inform
Receivers - learn threats and opportunities, understand, accepting realities, decide
Communicators - to teach
Receivers - acquire skills and knowledge to functions effectively in the community, learn appropriate values, behaviours and role from acceptance in the community
Communicators - to persuade
Receivers - to reach decisions, to adopt appropriate values, behaviours and roles for acceptance in the community
Communicators - to please
Receivers - to enjoy, relax, entertained, to be distrated from problem
TOOLS for WRITERS
- Equipment (references eg dictionary, internet, notes, trends, professional periodicals)
1 - Essential first stop to writing
2 A process of gathering, organising, presenting, updating and revising information
3 (i) Primary resources
(ii) Secondary resources
RESEARCH - Primary Sources
1 - Interviewing
Characteristics for interviewing
- research the subject
- research the person we are going to interview
- prepare list of questions
- use recorder and take notes (do not totally depend on memory)
- Ask to explain if not sure of answer
- Ask specific question to get specific answers
- Ask one questions at a time
Character of an interviewer
- warm and responsive
- to create a permissive atmosphere
- must not apply pressure
From this primary resources to this research
- focus from the interview
Thursday, January 8, 2009
At the moment the attempt is at the content only (betul tau I bukan ada masa sangat). Basically we did had some basic information on this subject.
We did discussed earlier some topics in Sosiology. It looks like we are going in-depth on human personality (seronoknya). Looking at the project paper, there is a similiarity in our Sosio project paper too.
Based on the summary on the chapter that we are going through there is a similiar objective on the research that we have done in Semester 2. (Literature Review). At least, now I will get the opportunity to improve my paper compared to last semester (menyedihkan). 8 marks upon fifteen (did not fit with my ego).
I will stop for now and it will be continued soon - promise...tau