Friday, December 26, 2008

Bab 1 - Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia Secara Umum

Rusuhan 13 Mei 1969 - Rusuhan Etnik pertama yang telah membuka semua mata untuk tidak membiarkan permasalahan dalaman ini di tepibekukan.

Selepas 12 tahun merdeka, permusuhan itu tersembul keluar dengan menumpahkan darah dan kebencian antara satu sama lain. Masalahnya di luar bandar tidak pula ia nampak jelas yang membolehkan kebencian itu meruncing hingga menumpahkan darah.

Dari pengalaman pahit itu, maka Malaysia mula mengenengahkan kepentingan kestabilan politik di dalam mendalami permasalah sosial yakni masalah hubungan etnik. Pemeliharaanya untuk menjamin kestabilan politik dan pertubuhan ekonomi yang harmonis adalah wajib.

1969 - kerajaan telah menubuhkan Jabatan Pernaduan Negara dan Integrasi Nasional. Tujuan murni yang pertama adalah untuk memupuk dan merapatkan masyarakat daripada semua negeri.


Kandungan - Hubungan Etnik

Bab 1 - Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia Secara Umum
Bab 2 - Konsep Asas Hubungan Etnik
Bab 3 - Pluraliti dan Masyarakat
Bab 4 - Pembangunan Ekonomi dalam Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia
Bab 5 - Pembangunan Politik dalam Konteks Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia
Bab 6 - Perlembagaan Malaysia dalam Konteks Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia
Bab 7 - Hubungan Etnik, Integrasi dan Menangani Cabaran
Bab 8 - Agama dan Hubungan Etnik
Bab 9 - Hubungan Etnik - Sumbangan Kerajaan dan Masyarakat
Bab 10 - Rumusan

Ethnic Relations - Dalam Bahasa Malaysia

Semalam pergi ke UITM Shah Alam, ambil surat untuk keluarkan EPF. Sementelahan pejabat modul buka, saya menanyakan ada tak buku untuk SEM 3. Seteleh adik tu melihat senarai, ada lah sebuah buku di berikan kepada saya. Ethnic Relations - CTU 553.

"Modul Hubungan Etnik" di dalam Bahasa Malaysia rupanya. Tak perlu lah saya menaikkan gambar di sini, rasanya semua yang mengambil subjek ini akan mendapatkan modul ini juga.

Berkisar tentang perhubungan Etnik di Malaysia dan perhubungannya dengan politik.

Nampak gayanya..belajar politik lah kita sesikit ye...Berapi api lah kelas nanti. Tak sabar nak mendengar dan berdebat debat di dalam kelas. Tengok lah macam mana gayanya. Kelas untuk Etnik Relations ini akan di adakan pada 18 Januari nanti, dalam lebih kurang 3 minggu lagi.

Selamat Bertemu.

Wednesday, December 24, 2008

40 studies That Changed Psychology

Another book that I borrowed from PNM, this attracts me more, during this public holiday where all the children has dispersed into thin air, i have the time in reading. What a wonderful day.

Unfortunately my neighbour (Hindu's family) is doing their prayer. It meant, plenty of loud music (the sound from the two tablas that caused my heart, mind and soul pounding) than i decided to insert this posting in the blog.

About the book - Written by Roger R Hock, reprinted since 1992, old research eh.. Pearson Education, New Jersey, but the topic that it is covering, faboulous, marvellous...

some of the chapters..

One brain or two
More experience = bigger brain
Are you a Natural
Watch Out for the Visual Cliff...

and that is Part 1 of 10.

and if I have the inspirations, generosity ...I will share what I had found in this book. Until later.


Psychology is a collection of academic, clinical and industrial disciplines concerned with the explanation and prediction of behavior, thought-processes, emotions, motivations, relationships, potentials and pathologies. It might be said that many related disciplines live under the same name including: experimental psychology, which focuses on basic and applied science; humanistic psychology, which uses qualitative research rather than conventional statistical methods to investigate the subjective experience of human beings; clinical psychology and counselling psychology, which focus primarily on helping people overcome or better manage pathologies as well as transcend perceived limitations; and Industrial/Organizational Psychology, which applies psychological principles to people working in organizations.

Psychology differs from sociology, anthropology, economics, and political science, in part, by studying the behavior of individuals (alone or in groups) rather than the behavior of the groups or aggregates themselves. While psychological questions were asked in antiquity (c.f., Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia or "On Memory and Recollection"), psychology emerged as a separate discipline only recently. The first person to call himself a "psychologist", Wilhelm Wundt, opened the first psychological laboratory in 1879.

The root of the word psychology (psyche) means "soul" or "spirit" in Greek, and psychology was sometimes considered a study of the soul (in a religious sense of this term), though its emergence as a medical discipline can be seen in Thomas Willis' reference to psychology (the "Doctrine of the Soul") in terms of brain function, as part of his 1672 anatomical treatise "De Anima Brutorum" ("Two Discourses on the Souls of Brutes").

Until about the end of the 19th Century, psychology was regarded as a branch of philosophy. Experimental psychology, as introduced by Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 at Leipzig University in Germany, did not contain any religious implications. In the 1890s, Sigmund Freud invented and utilized a therapeutic method of uncovering repressed wishes, known as psychoanalysis. Since then, psychology typically considered primarily behavior (e.g., the behaviorism of John B. Watson and later psychologists), the mind (i.e., cognitive psychology), or both. Today it would be rare to find someone who considered psychology the study of immaterial minds, let alone souls. However, there are many psychologists who believe in the soul and bring spirituality into their psychological work. Of course, like all sciences that have broken off from philosophy, purely philosophical questions about the mind are still studied by philosophers; the name of the philosophical subdiscipline which studies those questions is philosophy of mind or philosophical psychology.

Experimental psychology, the field founded by Wilhelm Wundt and William James, focuses on general and basic questions concerning behavior, mental states, or both, including theories of pathology which are also important to clinical psychology.

A key area of debate in psychology has been the extent to which our capacities are learnt versus the extent to which they are innate (this issue is closely related to the more general nature-nurture debate in biology). The behaviorism of B.F. Skinner viewed behaviour as being learnt through a process of conditioning - the association of stimuli with responses. The influence of behaviorism took a blow with the work of the psycho-linguist Noam Chomsky on language acquisition. Chomsky argued that the stimulus available to an infant was simply not rich enough to allow language-learning through Skinnerian conditioning, and that the human brain must have an innate capacity for, or predisposition towards language learning. This idea that the brain has a specialised Language Acquisition Device in many ways laid the foundation for the field now known as cognitive psychology, which tends to view the mind in terms of more-or-less specialised functions or processes.

Humanistic psychology emerged in the 1950s in reaction to both behaviorism and psychoanalysis. It stresses a phenomenological view of human experience and seeks to understand human beings and their behavior by conducting qualitative research. The humanistic approach has its roots in existentialist thought (see Heidegger, Nietzsche, Sartre and Kierkegaard). The founding theorists behind this school of thought are Abraham Maslow who presented a hierarchy of human needs, Carl Rogers who created and developed client centered therapy, and Fritz and Laura Perls who helped create and develop 'gestalt therapy'.
Clinical and counseling psychology both focus on understanding and treatment of behavioral or mental problems. Psychiatry is the medical field specializing in mental health issues, thereby overlapping with clinical psychology. Clinical and counselling psychologists often work in co-operation with psychiatrists, social workers, psychiatric nurses and 'lay' counselors. Psychiatrists are often involved in providing psycho-pharmacological care including antidepressant, antianxiety, antipsychotic and mood-stabilizing medication. Services aimed at mental or behavioral problems are also often provided by traditional healers and religious counselors. Fields such as neuroscience, political science, media studies and gender studies have also come to be seen as closely related to psychology.

Applied psychology is a more general term, referring to solving problems and answering questions that could help solve problems faced by people and society. For example, researching how animals won't eat novel foods after getting ill, even if the food didn't cause the illness, has helped explain why cancer patients have difficulty eating after chemotherapy.
During the third through sixth centuries in India, a branch of study developed within Buddhism that investigated the functions of the human mind, and the relationship of these to human behavior, mental illness, and methods for correcting delusory thinking that leads to suffering. This school was known as Yogacara (also known by the names Mind-only, Consciousness-only, etc).

In recent years and particularly in the United States, a major split has been developing between academic research psychologists in universities and some branches of clinical psychology. Many academic psychologists believe that these clinicians use therapies based on discredited theories and unsupported by empirical evidence of their effectiveness. From the other side, these clinicians believe that the academics are ignoring their experience in dealing with actual patients. The disagreement has resulted in the formation of the American Psychological Society by the research psychologists as a new body distinct from the American Psychological Association.

more from

Sunday, December 21, 2008

How to Do Research

A Psychologist's Guide

- Jonathan St B T Evans, 2005 Psychology Press New York

I am reading this book at this moment and will tap in some information later (sharing is the best I can do for both of us).

4 of 4 - Ethnic Relations

Relations between people of different ethnic groups are crucial issues in the world of today. At both the national and international levels, ethnic conflicts are important issues, impeding effective relations and social harmony.

Although people often believe that we can all get along if we just try, history tells us that conflict is more likely than harmony in the context of intercultural contact. How can we get along better with others?

The chances for effective and harmonious intercultural relations are enhanced by knowledge about the dynamics of culture and cross-cultural relations and preparation for cross-cultural adaptation.

3 of 4 - Marketing Communications

Marketing communications is a subset of the overall subject area known as marketing.

Marketing has a marketing mix that is made of price, place, promotion, product (know as the four P's), that includes people, processes and physical evidence, when marketing services (known as the seven P's).

How does marketing communications fit in? Marketing communications is 'promotion' from the marketing mix.

Why are marketing communications 'integrated?' Integrated means combine or amalgamate, or put simply the jigsaw pieces that together make a complete picture. This is so that a single message is conveyed by all marketing communications. Different messages confuse your customers and damage brands. So if a TV advert carries a particular logo, images and message, then all newspaper adverts and point-of-sale materials should carry the same logo, images or message, or one that fits the same theme. Coca-Cola uses its familiar red and white logos and retains themes of togetherness and enjoyment throughout its marketing communications.

Marketing communications has a mix. Elements of the mix are blended in different quantities in a campaign. The marketing communications mix includes many different elements, and the following list is by no means conclusive. It is recognised that there is some cross over between individual elements (e.g. Is donating computers to schools, by asking shoppers to collect vouchers, public relations or sales promotion?) Here are the key of the marketing communications mix.

The Marketing Communications Mix.

Personal Selling.
Sales Promotion.
Public Relations (and publicity).
Direct Marketing.
Trade Fairs and Exhibitions.
Advertising (above and below the line).
Merchandising (and point-of-sale).
EMarketing (and Internet promotions).

Integrated marketing communications see the elements of the communications mix 'integrated' into a coherent whole. This is known as the marketing communications mix, and forms the basis of a marketing communications campaign.

2 of 4 - Writing for Public Relations

picking this information from one the net..

not sure it will be the same, maybe some rought ideas on the subject

This writing-intensive course includes components of knowledge and skills. You will learn about organizations, publics, the media and how to prepare public relations messages for print and electronic media.

Course Objectives:

You will learn how to adapt messages for various media (e.g., news releases, copy for employee publications, position papers, direct mail, video scripts, speeches and Web sites).

You will consider your audience and associated motivational factors, as well as the technical requirements of the medium. You will also become familiar with and use commercial media lists.

Knowledge components. You will learn to:
Explain how writer's purpose, intended public and requirements of the medium affect style and content.

Recognize potential problems and apply solutions in media relations.

Recognize legal and ethical problems associated with public relations writing.

Skill components. You will learn to:

Prepare news releases, with particular attention to the requirements of the sponsoring organization, the requirements of the medium, and journalistic standards.

Adapt written material for use in newsletters.

Develop questions and answers in anticipation of media interest.

Write and orally deliver a prepared statement, then field questions from an aggressive media corps.

Research and write a speech for someone else.

Proofread and edit the work of others.

Apply the AP Stylebook guidelines to written materials.

Use commercial media directories.

Textbooks, Supplementary Materials, Hardware and Software Requirements

Required Textbooks:

Please visit the Virtual Bookstore to obtain textbook information for this course:

Supplementary Materials:
Please visit the Virtual Bookstore to obtain textbook information for this course:

Hardware Requirements:

The minimum requirements can be found at
Software Requirements:

The minimum requirements can be found at

Unit1Chapter one and two:

Public relations and the writer. Publics, channels and the role of the writer. Legal and ethical guidelines.

Unit 2

Chapter three and four:

Persuasion and communication. Steps in the persuasion process. Research for the PR writer.

Unit 3

Chapter five and six:

Style and Content, Grammar, Spelling and Punctuation. Using Associated Press style. Editing.
Simplifying the complex. Media directories, The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on

Media Law.

hapter seven:

Preparing memos, business letters, reports and proposals. Use of e-mail and proper


Chapter eight:

Backgrounders and position papers. Advocating a point of view.


Chapter nine and ten:

News releases. Form, style and types of releases; news for broadcasting.


Chapter 11 and 12:

Creating messages for broadcast media. Public service announcements, releases and video news releases.

Unit8Chapter 13:

Writing advertising copy. Message appeal and positioning. Direct response and sales promotions.

Unit 9

Chapter 14: Writing for Web sites and e-newsletters. Developing an organizational Web site.

Creating an online area for journalists.

Unit10Chapter 15:

Components of campaign writing and media kits. Speeches, presentations and proclamations.

Unit 11Chapter 16: Speeches, presentations and proclamations.

Unit12Chapter 17: Newsletters, brochures and annual reports.

Unit13Chapter 18: Brochures

Unit14Chapter19: Magazines and Annual reports.

Unit15Chapter 20: Crisis Communications

(some of the chapters it looks likes we have cover in the past semester)..maybe this round we are going in depth.

The Four

These are the 4 subjects


1 of 4 - Psychology

some definations from the wikipedia - absolutely need more readig on this def...from the books and the discussions with the lecturer

Psychology (from Greek ψῡχή, psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; and -λογία, -logia) is an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. Psychologists study such phenomena as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including issues related to everyday life (e.g. family, education, and employment) and the treatment of mental health problems. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of these functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the underlying physiological and neurological processes. Psychology includes many sub-fields of study and application concerned with such areas as human development, sports, health, industry, media, and law.

3rd Semester - Dec08 - Apr 09

Few New things - (lair) ..try my best
1) Not happy with my 2nd Semester results (still unhappy - give me more time)

2) With new hopes and resolutions (never trust own resolutions)

3) 4 New Subjects

4) Hectic - Need to attend seminars on different weeks - total 8 seminars (worst in February 4 seminars) rest at all..

5) Starting early...(like today, I have borrowed (not read) Psychology books from the library)..naah..

...... and bunch of fresh flowers for me.. (yeah - virtual only mah where can I afford)